Gas evolved is hydrogen. The 2nd member is propene, C3H6. (vi) CH3CH2 ≡ CH, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. What happens when : [14] Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Write the chemical equation for the reaction and write the chemical name of the product formed. Deposits of graphite in Borrowdale, Cumberland, England were at first of sufficient size and purity that, until the 19th century, pencils were made simply by sawing blocks of natural graphite into strips before encasing the strips in wood. (ii) Ethanol Carbon black was probably one of the first pigments to be used for tattooing, and Ötzi the Iceman was found to have carbon tattoos that survived during his life and for 5200 years after his death. (iii) It has a characteristics smell Question 11. Flake graphite is less common and of higher quality than amorphous; it occurs as separate plates that crystallized in metamorphic rock. ‘X’is ethanoic acid (an organic acid). Comment. Question 31. It occurs in veins along intrusive contacts in solid lumps, and it is only commercially mined in Sri Lanka. (c) An atom/group of atoms joined in a specific manner which is responsible for the characteristics chemical properties of the organic compounds is called a functional group. (ii) Tetravalency: Since carbon has a balency of 4, it is capable of bonding with four other atoms of carbon or atoms of elements like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine, etc. Give examples of four different functional groups. (a) The molecular formulae of any two successive members of a homologous series differ by CH2 (i) Substitution Reaction: Reaction in which atom or a group of atoms of an organic molecule is replaced or substituted by another atom or a group of atom is known as substitution reaction. The asteroids can be used in hypothetical space-based carbon mining, which may be possible in the future, but is currently technologically impossible.[67]. Annealing to at least 250 °C can release the energy safely, although in the Windscale fire the procedure went wrong, causing other reactor materials to combust. Explain esterification reaction with the help of a chemical equation. What is vinegar ? (i) ethanol burns in air. Chain length, shape and functional groups all affect the properties of organic molecules. Name two oxidising agents that are used for the conversion of alcohols to acids. (b) Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. The long hydrocarbon chain present in soap molecule is hydrophobic so the hydrocarbon part of soap molecule is insoluble in water but soluble in oil and greae. Conc.H2SO4 acts as dehydrating agent. One way of checking whether the name you have given to an alkane is reasonable is to count the number of carbon atoms implied by the chosen name. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Write down the electron dot structure (formula) of sodium chloride and magnesium oxide. Answer: Diamonds are embedded in drill tips or saw blades, or ground into a powder for use in grinding and polishing applications. (iii) ethanoic acid reacts with NaOH ? The symbol R is used to designate a generic (unspecified) alkyl group. Give the name and formula of x. 5-8% solution of ethanoic acid in water is known as vinegar. This example contains two functional groups, bromine and chlorine, and one substitute, the methyl group. Among these are the simple oxides of carbon. Question 37. Why are soaps not suitable for washing clothes with hard water ? A 5-8% solution of acetic acid in water is called vinegar and is used widely as a preservative pickels. Today, smaller deposits of graphite are obtained by crushing the parent rock and floating the lighter graphite out on water. What is homologous series of carbon compounds ? The names fullerene and buckyball are given after Richard Buckminster Fuller, popularizer of geodesic domes, which resemble the structure of fullerenes. Write an example of a compound formed with: (ii) C2H5OH. Write the molecular formula of first two members of homologous series having functional group -Br. Answer: (iii) ring compounds. The system of carbon allotropes spans a range of extremes: Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various multi-atomic structures with diverse molecular configurations called allotropes. [107] The resulting renewed interest in new forms lead to the discovery of further exotic allotropes, including glassy carbon, and the realization that "amorphous carbon" is not strictly amorphous. Although it forms an extraordinary variety of compounds, most forms of carbon are comparatively unreactive under normal conditions. Chemical compounds are pure substances that are made up of two or more elements that are chemically combined in fixed mass ratios. Because of its relatively short half-life of 5730 years, 14C is virtually absent in ancient rocks.


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